|09-05-2011, 06:32 PM||#1|
اردت ان اضع هذا الموضوع للثقافة العامة لتتعرفوا على مرض Parkinson's
اتمنى ان يعجبكم موضوعي و تستفيدوا منه مع اسفي على عدم ظهورالصور
"Parkinson's" redirects here. For other uses, see Parkinson's (disambiguation).
Classification and external resources
Illustration of Parkinson's disease by William Richard Gowers from A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System in 1886
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Parkinson Disease Overview
Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson's, Parkinson disease, or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills, cognitive processes, and other functions. The most obvious symptoms are motor-related, including tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability. Among non-motor symptoms are autonomic dysfunction and sensory and sleep difficulties. Cognitive and behavioral problems, including dementia, are common in the advanced stages of the disease. PD usually appears around the age of 60, although there are young-onset cases.
PD is also called "primary parkinsonism" or "idiopathic PD" (meaning having no known cause), although some cases have a genetic origin. Many risk and protective factors have been investigated, showing an increased risk of PD in those exposed to pesticides; and a reduced risk in smokers. Symptoms result from insufficient formation and action of dopamine produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain (specifically the substantia nigra). Pathologically the disease is characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein forming inclusions called Lewy bodies. Such pathology can only be demonstrated at autopsy so diagnosis is mainly clinical (based on symptoms). Some tests such as neuroimaging techniques can also aid in diagnosis.
Current treatments are effective at managing the early motor symptoms of the disease, mainly through the use of levodopa and dopamine agonists. As the disease advances, however, the continued use of medications leads to a second stage in which the patient develops motor complications called dyskinesias. Medications to treat other symptoms of PD also exist. Diet and some forms of rehabilitation have shown some effectiveness at mitigating symptoms, and surgery and deep brain stimulation may be used to reduce motor symptoms in the most extreme cases.
The disease is named after English surgeonJames Parkinson, who gave the first detailed description of it in "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" (1817). PD is a costly disease to society. Several major organizations promote research and improvement of quality of life of those with the disease and their families. Research directions include a search of new animal models of the disease, and investigations of the potential usefulness of gene therapy, stem cells transplants and neuroprotective agents. Advocacy actions include April 11, birthday of James Parkinson, as the world's Parkinson's disease day, and the use of a red tulip as the symbol of the disease. People with PD who have greatly affected public awareness include Michael J. Fox and Muhammad Ali.
Positive Alpha-Synuclein staining of a Lewy body in a patient with Parkinson's disease. Presence of Lewy bodies in the brains of those with PD has led to the classification of the disease as a synucleinopathy.
The term parkinsonism is used for a motor syndrome whose main symptoms are tremor at rest, stiffness, slowing of movement and postural instability. Parkinsonisms can be divided into four subtypes according to their origin: primary or idiopathic, secondary or acquired, hereditary parkinsonism, and parkinson plus syndromes or multiple system degeneration. Parkinson's disease is the most common form of parkinsonism, and is usually defined as "idiopathic" parkinsonism, meaning parkinsonism with no identifiable cause.
PD is usually classified as a movement disorder, although it also gives rise to several non-motor types of symptoms such as cognitive difficulties or sleep problems. Parkinson-plus diseases are primary parkinsonism which present additional features. They include multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies.
In terms of pathophysiology, PD is considered a synucleinopathy due to an abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain in the form of Lewy bodies, as opposed to other diseases such as Alzheimer's disease where the brain accumulates tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Nevertheless there is clinical and pathological overlap between tauopathies and synucleinopathies. The most typical symptom of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, occurs in advanced stages of PD, while it is common to find neurofibrillary tangles in PD patients' brains at autopsy. Dementia with Lewy bodies is another synucleinopathy that has many similarities with PD. Thus the two diseases, especially PD with dementia, may be considered parts of the same continuum. However the relationship between the two diseases is complex and still has to be clarified.
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التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة شهد الانشاد ; 09-05-2011 الساعة 09:26 PM.
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